Dosimetry and Radioenhancement Comparison of Gold Nanoparticles in Kilovoltage and Megavoltage Radiotherapy using MAGAT Polymer Gel Dosimeter

S Farahani, N Riyahi Alam, S Haghgoo, M Khoobi, Gh Geraily, E Gorji


Background: Numerous unique characteristics of the nanosized gold, including high atomic number, low toxicity, and high biocompatibility make it one of the most appropriate nanostructures to boost radiotherapy efficacy. Many in-vivo and in-vitro investigations have indicated that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can significantly increase tumor injuries in low kilovoltage radiotherapy. While deep-lying tumors require much higher energy levels with greater penetration power, and investigations carried out in megavoltage energy range show contradictory results.

Objective: In this study, we quantitatively assess and compare dose enhancement factors (DEFs) obtained through AuNPs under radiation of Cobalt-60 source (1.25MeV) versus Iridium-192 source (0.380 KeV) using MAGAT gel dosimeter.

Material and Methods: MAGAT polymer gel in both pure and combined with 0.2 mM AuNPs was synthesized. In order to quantify the effect of energy on DEF, irradiation was carried out by Co-60 external radiotherapy and Ir-192 internal radiotherapy. Finally, readings of irradiated and non-irradiated gels were performed by MR imaging.

Result: The radiation-induced R2 (1/T2) changes of the gel tubes doped with AuNPs compared to control samples, upon irradiation of beams released by Ir-192 source showed a significant dose enhancement (15.31% ±0.30) relative to the Co-60 external radiotherapy (5.85% ±0.14).

Conclusion: This preliminary study suggests the feasibility of using AuNPs in radiation therapy (RT), especially in low-energy sources of brachytherapy. In addition, MAGAT polymer gel, as a powerful dosimeter, could be used for 3D visualization of radiation dose distribution of AuNPs in radiotherapy.


Brachytherapy, Dose Enhancer, External Radiotherapy, Gel Dosimetry, Nanotechnology

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