Evaluation of Lung Density and Its Dosimetric Impact on Lung Cancer Radiotherapy: A Simulation Study

T Raj Verma, N Kumar Painuly, S Prasad Mishra, S A Yoganathan, N Singh, M L B Bhatt, N Jamal


Background: The dosimetric parameters required in lung cancer radiation therapy are taken from a homogeneous water phantom; however, during treatment, the expected results are being affected because of its inhomogeneity. Therefore, it becomes necessary to quantify these deviations.

Objective: The present study has been undertaken to find out inter- and intra- lung density variations and its dosimetric impact on lung cancer radiotherapy using Monte Carlo code FLUKA and PBC algorithms.

Material and Methods: Density of 100 lungs was recorded from their CT images along with age. Then, after PDD calculated by FLUKA MC Code and PBC algorithm for virtual phantom having density 0.2 gm/cm3 and 0.4 gm/cm3 (density range obtained from CT images of 100 lungs) using Co-60 10 x10 cm2 beams were compared.

Results: Average left and right lung densities were 0.275±0.387 and 0.270±0.383 respectively. The deviation in PBC calculated PDD were (+)216%, (+91%), (+)45%, (+)26.88%, (+)14%, (-)1%, (+)2%, (-)0.4%, (-)1%, (+)1%, (+)4%, (+)4.5% for 0.4 gm/cm3 and (+)311%, (+)177%, (+)118%, (+)90.95%, (+)72.23%, (+)55.83% ,(+)38.85%, (+)28.80%, (+)21.79%, (+)15.95%, (+)1.67%, (-) 2.13%, (+)1.27%, (+)0.35%, (-)1.79%, (-)2.75% for 0.2 gm/cm3 density mediums at depths of 1mm, 2mm, 3mm, 4mm, 5mm, 6 mm, 7 mm, 8mm, 9mm,10mm, 15mm, 30mm, 40mm, 50mm, 80mm and 100 mm, respectively.

Conclusion: Large variations in inter- and intra- lung density were recorded. PBC overestimated the dose at air/lung interface as well as inside lung. The results of Monte Carlo simulation can be used to assess the performance of other treatment planning systems used in lung cancer radiotherapy.


PBC, Monte Carlo Code FLUKA, Variation in Lung Density, Virtual Phantom, Computed Tomography

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22086/jbpe.v0i0.430

eISSN: 2251-7200        JBPE NLM ID: 101589641

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