Investigating the Effect of Air Cavities of Sinuses on the Radiotherapy Dose Distribution Using Monte Carlo Method

F Seif, M R Bayatiani, S Hamidi, M Kargaran


Background: Considering that some vital organs exist in the head and neck region, the treatment of tumors in this area is a crucial task. The existence of air cavities, namely sinuses, disrupt the radiotherapy dose distribution. The study aims to analyze the effect of maxillary, frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses on radiotherapy dose distribution by Monte Carlo method.

Materials and Methods: In order to analyze the effect of the cavities on dose distribution, the maxillary, frontal, ethmoid and sphenoid sinus cavities were simulated with (3×3.2×2) cm3, (2×2×3.2) cm3, (1×1×1.2) cm3 and(1×1×2) cm3 dimensions.

Results: In the analysis of the dose distribution caused by cavities, some parameters were observed, including: inhomogeneity of dose distribution in the cavities, inhomogeneity of dose on the edges of the air cavities and dispersion of the radiations after the air cavity. The amount of the dose in various situations showed differences: before the cavity a 0.64% and a 2.76% decrease, a 12.06% and a 17.17% decrease in the air zone, and a 2.25% and a 5.9% increase after the cavity.

Conclusion: The results indicate that a drop in dose before the air cavities and in the air zone occurs due to the lack of scattered radiation. Furthermore, the rise in dose was due to the passage of more radiation from the air cavity and dose deposition after the air cavity. The changes in dose distribution are dependent on the cavity size and depth. As a result, this has to be noted in the treatment planning and MU calculations of the patient.


Air Cavities, Monte Carlo Method, Radiotherapy Dose Distribution

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